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A Canary's Eye View — Metabolic Basis
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The Defect(s) in my Sulfur Metabolism


Deficient sulfoxidation enzymes

Cysteine Dioxygenase (CDO) - Primary regulating enzyme of cysteine; responsible for sulfoxidation of cysteine to sulfate.

  • My Great Smokies Liver Detox Profile showed elevated cysteine and low sulfate in my blood; CDO deficiency causes that. See
  • Low/inactive CDO is also indicated by intolerance of sulfur-bearing foods like garlic and broccoli (see my page on Foods Rich in Sulfur) plus high blood plasma L-cysteine
  • CDO requires iron and histidine; a Quantitative Amino Acid test 26 April 02 showed my histidine quite low.
  • I have not found a specific test for CDO but these indications seem sufficient, to me, to conclude my CDO is problematic.
  • So how treat deficient CDO?

Sulfite Oxidase (SO) - catalyses the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, necessary for metabolism of sulfur amino acids.

It's clear I have inadequate sulfate. But could this be from deficient CDO alone? What proportion of the body's sulfate comes from CDO, what from SO?

Dysfunctional Sulfation (Inorganic sulfate is activated with two ATP molecules, producing phosphoadenosyl phosphosulfate (PAPS) — which then reacts with exotoxins to produce sulfated derivatives.) Just above reference range on GS test. For more info see Sulfation.

Deficient Glutathione Conjugation: The Detox Profile showed my Glutathione Conjugation too low, but glutathione reserves were not exhausted.

This suggests low levels of enzyme(s) of this system — in which genetic deficiencies are common. See Glutathione Metabolism.

Deficient Glycine Conjugation and as a result, too high a ratio of Phase I detoxification to glycine conjugation — making me a "pathological detoxifier": My P450 enzymes make their toxic products too fast for my glycination to handle. Glycine, and the other amino acids used for conjugation, become deficient on a low-protein diet and when chronic exposure to toxins results in depletion. Supplement? Jo-Mar Labs has a pure powder of it [scroll down in their "Amino Acid Quick Finder"].

Deficient bile from lack of taurine: stools become more yellow, less brown. Fat digestion suffers.

Deficient glycosaminoglycans Since I have ligament problems, I need to look into GAGs.

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Last updated 8 June 2007