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Citrobacter Freundii

Great Smokies found this gram-negative aerobe in my gut.


  • [where did I read about systemic inflammation from this?]
  • Endophthalmitis (inflammation of the intraocular cavities)
  • Hydrogen sulfide? [this is a conjecture on my part; see my experience below.]
  • Weight loss?
    • "Citrobacter rodentium, formerly Citrobacter freundii biotype 4280, is the etiologic agent of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia). C. rodentium is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod. Rats are not susceptible to infection. Transmission is via direct contact or via contaminated food or bedding. C. rodentium is generally considered an opportunistic pathogen. For example, the use of antibiotics effective primarily against gram-negative rods may allow an overgrowth of C. rodentium in the mouse intestine. Clinical signs, when present, are nonspecific and may include ruffled coat, weight loss [emphasis mine -chc], depression, stunting, perianal fecal staining, and rectal prolapse. Nursing mice are most susceptible. Strain differences in susceptibility exist, with C3H/HeJ mice more susceptible than DBA/2J, NIHS (Swiss), or C57BL/6J mice. Infection is transient, and there is no carrier state. The hallmark pathologic lesion of C. rodentium infection is colonic hyperplasia. Generally, the descending colon is most affected. However, the entire colon and cecum may be involved, with crypt elongation, variable mucosal inflammation, crypt abscesses, occasional erosions and ulcers, and, with healing, goblet cell hyperplasia. Transient colonization of the mouse small intestinal mucosa, followed by colonization of the large bowel, is dependent on the presence of the chromosomal eae gene. Once colonization has occurred, C. rodentium causes the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Outer membrane proteins, known as intimins, are required for formation of the A/E lesions. Immunity appears to be humoral and may be directed at least partially toward intimin antigens. Reported effects on research are few, but they include acceleration of carcinogenesis by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. C. rodentium is used as a model of A/E lesions in vivo and in intestinal disease of humans. Natural infection of laboratory mice might severely, if only transiently, alter intestinal cytokinetics." From Bacteria, Digestive System on the Microinjection Workshop site.


Great Smokies tested the bacteria's sensitivity to the following substances

  • Prescriptive agents
    • Resistant to...
      • Amoxyicillin/Clavulanic Acid
      • Ampicillin
      • Cefazolin
    • Sensitive to...
      • Ceftriaxone
      • Ciprofloxacin
      • Gentamicin
      • Trimethoprin/Sulfa. - a bad idea with my sulfation problems.
  • Natural substances:
    • Resistant to Berberine
    • Sensitive to
      • Plant tannins
      • Uva-Ursi
    • Intermediate sensitivity:
      • Oregano

Other treatment possibilities

My experience

High-sulfur foods give me a lot of gas, which gets painful if I stay still for an hour or more. Driving or watching TV will do it, but worst is at night. If I eat sulfur foods after 3 pm the pain keeps me awake after 3 am. It doesn't feel like gas pains I ever had before: much sharper. Tanalbit and oregano have reduced it, when I could get away with them. I guess this gas could be from either the bacteria or Candida (or both).

copyright © 2005 by Catherine Holmes Clark. Last updated 3 December 2005